After a period of 10 weeks, bean seeds were planted on the remediated soil to observe if these various cells would sustain plant growth for the first 15 days. To gain insight into the factors driving the structure of bacterial communities in soil, we applied real‐time PCR, PCR‐denaturing gradient gel electrophoreses, and phylogenetic microarray approaches targeting the 16S rRNA gene across a range of different land usages in the Netherlands. Anyakwee Nsirimovu of Niger Delta Civil Society Coalition said the nation is "sitting on a keg of gunpowder if nothing is done to address the grievances of the oil-producing communities". Crude oil degradation rates in contaminated soils receiving different treatments, All figure content in this area was uploaded by Monday Ubogu, All content in this area was uploaded by Monday Ubogu on May 21, 2020, Autochthonous Microbial Bioaugmented Remediation of Crude Oil, Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture M. Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Exploration and exploitation of oil in Nigeria since the discovery of oil in the commercial quantities in 1958 have sustained the country economy and contributed greatly to the enhancement of its citizenries’ well-being. In a practical and applied sense, the collective action of plants and their associated microorganisms is advantageous for remediation of PHC contaminated soil in terms of overall cost and success rates for in situ implementation in a diversity of environments. It is the largest wetland and maintains the third-largest drainage basin in Africa. To cushion this suppressive effects, plants were subjected to the following, Backgroud of Study duration of solarisation was 43.0 ± 2.5 ºC. There, contaminated soils. Materials and Methods: Total fungi (TF) and hydrocarbon utilizing fungi (HUF) The key environmental issues in the Niger Delta of Nigeria relate to its petroleum and industry.. The results show that the desert soil required bioaugmentation and biostimulation for bioremediation of crude oil. Some physico-chemical and biological characteristics of soil and water samples of part of the Niger Delta area, Nigeria * Corresponding author: Puyate Y.T. in the root zones (rhizosphere and rhizoplane) and non-rhizosphere soil of S. officinarum were assessed quantitatively Residual TPH decreased in all contaminated soils with time. 0000002002 00000 n Evaluation of soil microbial communities as influenced by crude oil pollution ... factors. Treatments were monitored for 120 days to determine their effects on the following growth parameters: Germination, germination percentage, height, and root length, dry weight, and leaf area. Bacterial isolates with high tolerance and sorption capacity were subsequently inoculated as consortium and individually into duplicate soils samples planted with elephant grass containing 4000 g of soil in pots at concentration of 6.118 mg/Kg of cadmium. Root zones of S. officinarum parades significant fungal populations capable of utilizing petroleum hydrocarbon Some organisms found in the water (primary bacteria and fungi) may break down some of the petroleum hydrocarbon fractions. 0000001590 00000 n Then, samples of contamination-free Fluvo-aquic soil were collected from the same area and mixed with 15 g μ kg-1 petroleum for pot experiment to study effects of the microorganisims and plants on remediation of the petroleum contaminated soil. Microbial Related Parameters. Results and Discussion The potential for integrating multiple molecular and computational techniques to evaluate linkages between microbial communities, plant communities and ecosystem processes is explored with an eye on. In this article, we reviewed the consequence, effects, and impact of air pollution in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. This paper evaluates health risk communication in the oil rich Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Also, the time effect of the remediation process had P-value less than 0.05 for 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% crude oil contamination signifying that the time factor play important role in the remediation process. Treatments PSOFM and SFOM recorded the highest TPH loss with daily residual TPH loss in the order as follows: E. crassipes (49.20 mg/kg/day) ˃ P. australis (44.64 mg/kg/day) ˃ unplanted soil (40.32 mg/kg/day). The Niger Delta region is the oil producing area of Nigeria, which consists of highly diverse ecosystems that are supportive of numerous species of terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora. Soil moisture 4. The major soil factors which influence the microbial population, distribution and their activity in the soil are. and qualitatively using soil, Little is known about Niger Delta plant species that can adapt to survive in oil-contaminated soil. Rhizosphere bacteria were isolated using the soil dilution plate method on nutrient agar, centrimide agar, yeast extract mannitol agar, and formulated media specific for Acidobacterium spp. ��@�xttt M�@"���HE��@����> ���`1�����W3e8� ttk ���p�a?#3�e ߃�.�- -��@,�_��`1�ܿQJ1�E�1��f��d��Km`8༇� #/���i& �0 ~�R� endstream endobj 74 0 obj 258 endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 32 0 R /Resources 38 0 R /Contents [ 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 55 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 38 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /Font << /TT2 39 0 R /TT4 40 0 R /TT6 52 0 R /TT8 53 0 R /TT10 57 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS1 67 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /Cs6 43 0 R >> >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 181 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 833 0 0 333 333 500 564 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 278 278 564 0 564 444 921 722 667 667 722 611 556 722 722 333 389 722 611 889 722 722 556 0 667 556 611 722 722 944 0 722 611 0 0 0 0 0 0 444 500 444 500 444 333 500 500 278 278 500 278 778 500 500 500 500 333 389 278 500 500 722 500 500 444 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 0 444 0 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 576 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /AOFFEC+TimesNewRoman /FontDescriptor 42 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 120 /Widths [ 278 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 333 0 0 278 333 278 278 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 667 0 0 0 667 611 0 0 0 500 0 0 833 0 778 0 0 0 667 0 0 667 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 556 556 500 556 556 0 556 556 222 222 0 222 0 556 556 556 0 333 500 278 556 500 722 500 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /AOFFJC+Arial /FontDescriptor 41 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 905 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -211 /Flags 32 /FontBBox [ -665 -325 2000 1006 ] /FontName /AOFFJC+Arial /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 0 /XHeight 515 /FontFile2 69 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 891 /CapHeight 656 /Descent -216 /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -568 -307 2000 1007 ] /FontName /AOFFEC+TimesNewRoman /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 94 /XHeight 0 /FontFile2 68 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj [ /ICCBased 66 0 R ] endobj 44 0 obj 1066 endobj 45 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 44 0 R >> stream The volume of the different percentages of crude oil contamination was equivalent to 3.17, 6.35 and 9.70l/m 2 of land area respectively. The survival of these plants in oil-contaminated soils indicates that they could be used for rhizoremediation in the Niger Delta. Culturable heterotrophic bacterial and fungal populations in crude oil contaminated soil receiving different treatments. Thus, growth of these plants can be enhanced in crude oil contaminated soil by the above treatments for efficient rhizoremediation.{��{�D���4���/5����y�3�? T. viride had the fastest mycelia extensional growth rate (0.59 and 0.41 mm/h) on PDA and OMA 3Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria Abstract: Some environmental effects of flooding in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria was reviewed to provide the desired knowledge needed for the effective management of flooding. studied. This large taxon includes many well known medically and environmentally important groups. about 4% of Nigeria) and is third largest Delta in the world (Kogbe 1989). 0000010130 00000 n With the exception of P. vulgaris and A. hypogaea, plant germination was delayed with increased concentration of oil. 35 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 37 /H [ 1240 371 ] /L 224685 /E 139718 /N 7 /T 223867 >> endobj xref 35 40 0000000016 00000 n H�b```f``����� t�A��X��,-`n'��V,³Y\P``�,�Ұ���Q����� ��pI s�ż)��3�r� 1. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. burnt afterwards) soil in Oshie community in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The chemical properties of spilled oil often affect the productiveness of soil and pollute water bodies, thereby causing irreparable damage to agricultural lands as well as aquatic bodies. However, the P-value less than 0.05 for crude oil contaminated soil at 4.5% which indicated that the water hyacinth may be necessary for remediating crude oil contaminated soil above 3 -4.5%. This community is a host to a major oil company in Nigeria. Bioaugmentation + addition of a surfactant was applied as the combined treatment. Mechanistically, there remain biological unknowns that present challenges for applying bio- and phyto-remediation technologies without having a deep prior understanding of individual target sites. Especially notable are the Enterobacteriaceae, Aeromonas, Beggiatoa, Chromatium, Legionella, Nitrococcus, Oceanospirillum, Pseudomonas, Rickettsiella, Vibrio, Xanthomonas and 155 additional genera. 1 Aspergillus sp. factors such as non-availability of conventional building materials, cost of transportation, ... affordable buildings in the riverine rural Niger delta communities. 0000001611 00000 n 0000010891 00000 n Results showed culturable heterotrophic and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbial populations and TPH loss in planted soils were consistently higher than those in unplanted receiving corresponding treatments (P ˂ 0.05). Food and energy supply 10. > Pseudomonas sp. significantly higher than their corresponding HUF populations (P ˂ 0.05). Micrococcus sp. Resistant isolates were further tested for their cadmium sorption capacity using Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). S = soil; SO = soil + oil; SOF = soil + oil + fertilizer; SOFM = soil + oil + fertilizer + microorganisms (hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria and fungi); SOFMS = soil + oil + fertilizer + microorganisms (hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria and fungi) + solarisation. Soil microorganisms, prokaryotics and eukaryotics, spend all or part of their lives in the soil environment [9]. Enhanced rhizoremediation of crude oil–contaminated mangrove swamp soil using two wetland plants (Ph... Growth Enhancement of Phragmites australis, Eichhornia crassipes and Saccharum officinarum for Rhizo... Assessment of the Hydrocarbon Utilizing Mycoflora of the Root Zones of Saccharum Officinarum, Growth and tolerance evaluation of selected plants to crude oil contamination in the Niger Delta, E Ffectiveness of Intrinsic Biodegradation Enhancement in Oil Hydrocarbons Contaminated Soil. Soil temperature: Temperature directly affects the activity of the soil biota by determining the rate of physiological activity such as enzyme activity and indirectly by affecting physico-chemical properties such as diffusion & solubility of nutrients, mineral weathering and evaporation rates and so on. There are several published works on biodegradation of hydrocarbon by mangrove soil microbial isolates from the Niger Delta but information on their ability to 3 † Corynebacterium sp. 1 † Bacillus sp. Results indicated that while culturable heterotrophic populations rose continuously throughout the study, hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial and fungal populations increased up to day-90 before diminishing in contaminated soils. Organic matter 9. Light 7. The control system gave 4% TPH reduction. In this review, evidence from traditional and modern omics technologies is discussed to provide a framework for plant-microbe interactions during PHCs remediation. Ekundayo, E. 2004-10-05 00:00:00 EFFECT OF COMMON PESTICIDES USED IN THE NIGER DELTA BASIN OF SOUTHERN NIGERIA ON SOIL MICROBIAL POPULATIONS E. O. EKUNDAYO Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria (e-mail: (Received 13 March 2002; accepted 21 October 2002) Abstract. _____________________________________________________________________________________________, The International Journal of Science & Technoledge. suspension in a 500.0 ml capacity conical, the populations of culturable heterotrophic, Baseline physicochemical figures from the, respectively). 1) is located within Latitudes 5 0 45’ and 635’, and longitudes 40 50’ and 50 15’, in the central part of Southern Nigeria and has Treatments were monitored for 120 days to determine their effects on the following growth parameters: Germination, germination percentage, height, and root length, dry weight, and leaf area. The addition of Tween 80 led to a respiration rate that peaked in 48 days compared to 88 days for the bioaugmented system and respiration declined rapidly due to nitrogen depletion. 0000014975 00000 n 0000014953 00000 n 67%. † Candida sp. 0000010373 00000 n Soil was monitored and evaluated for 120 days for culturable heterotrophic and hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria and fungi populations, and residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). Home to 20 million people and 40 different ethnic groups, this floodplain makes up 7.5% of Nigeria's total land mass. 57%, 40. level. To cushion this suppressive effects, plants were subjected to the following treatments: Plant + Soil (PS) (Control); Plant + Soil + Oil (PSO); Plant + Soil + Oil + Fertilizer (PSOF); Plant +Soil + Oil + Fertilizer + Microorganisms (PSOFM); and Plant + Soil + Fertilizer + Microorganisms + Solarization (PSOFMS). were no significant difference occurred (P ˂ 0.05). However, activities associated with petroleum exploration, development and production operations have local detrimental and significant impacts on the atmosphere, soils and sediments, surface and groundwater, marine environment, biologically diversity and sustainability of terrestrial ecos… Modifications in the count and activity of microorganisms may lead to upsetting the biological equilibrium of soil, which in turn depresses its fertility. Results indicated that treatments PSOF, PSOFM and PSOFMS enhanced all growth parameters over contaminated untreated soil (PSO) with the exception of germination in P. australis and S. officinarum ; while root length, leaf area in E. crassipes were statistically the same for PS, PSO, PSOFM and PSOFMS (P ˂ 0.05). The bioaugmented biopile system led to a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) reduction of 77% over 156 days while the system with polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) gave a 56% decrease in TPH. Niger Delta … 0000003589 00000 n The natural Niger Delta environment we inherited from our forebears was an environment rich in bio diversity, varied species of wild life, dense population of marine and aquatic life, in fresh and salt water bodies, with rich mangrove and fresh water vegetation, flamboyant raffia and shrubs. Conclusion Composition, structure and functions of microbial communities in soil are, however, under the constant control of the environment including various agricultural management practices. The Niger Delta ecosystem plays an essential role in the sustenance of the Nigerian economy. Bacteria associated with the rhizosphere of elephant grass thus enhanced the removal of cadmium from contaminated soil. The biostimulated system with indigenous micro-organisms gave 23% reduction in TPH. culturable fungal species were identified as HUF out of the eight isolated fungi from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane Eye witnesses susppects sabotage as the cause of … of S. officinarum. > Azosprillum sp. was completely absent or delayed for HUF on OMA as compared to PDA within 144 hours period of observation. 0000112211 00000 n Abstract. Factors affecting the population . It is part of the Niger Delta province which occurs at the southern part of Nigeria bordering the Atlantic Ocean. 67%, respectively, with sunflower, cotton, bermuda grass, and sudan grass; and in Treatment 3 (cotton + microorganisms) it reached as high as 85. Mycelia extensional growth rate of HUF were faster on PDA than OMA for all tested the soil with time on 16 cells. ... Delta, Nigeria. respectively among HUF. 0000013610 00000 n Includes a description of the Gammaproteobacteria (1203 pages, 222 figures, and 300 tables). antagonistic interactions and bacteriophage, Delta State, Nigeria, at 0 to 15 cm depth, Bioremediation studies was carried out by, Soils contamination in pots were prepared. recombinant genes to other microorganisms. 0000002654 00000 n dilution plate method and direct plating of serially washed root segments on PDA and Cultural practices 3. Microbial remediation which is the first line of defense against oil pollution in the [3.4] hydrocarbon contaminated site depends utmost on the microbial community structure. 0000008245 00000 n Previous remediation attempts in the area had failed due to erroneous operational conclusions (such as conclusions by oil industry operators that the Niger Delta soil is covered by a layer of clay and as such oil percolation remains within the top soil and makes remediation by enhanced natural attenuation (RENA) suitable for the region) and the adoption of incompatible and ineffective … Mycelia extensional growth and minimum sporulation time of isolated HUF on PDA and OMA were also Overall, growth enhancement efficiencies of the applied treatments were in the order: PSOFM ˃ PSOF ˃ PSOFMS. 0000004755 00000 n Same was done for uninoculated contaminated control. Nitrogen was found to be a limiting nutrient in desert soil bioremediation. Enhanced rhizoremediation was more effective than biostimulation and bioaugmentation techniques. 0000008756 00000 n The Niger Delta extends from longitude 3.5E to 8.45E and latitude 4.5N to 5.65N and covers an area of approximately 36, 260km2 (i.e. Int J Avian & Wildlife Biol. The exploitation and exploration of oil therefore not only are a source of revenue for the country but also contributed greatly to the pollution of the environment and the need to collect the gas for effective utilization. The paper identified and analysed the major challenges posed by this crisis to the Nigerian State. 0000006195 00000 n The soil is alluvial formed by water deposits. 67% and 38. to soil. 0000059527 00000 n This review focuses on recent data relating how plant type, soil type, and soil management regime affect the microbial diversity of soil and the implication for the soil's disease suppressiveness. Rhizoremediation dependends at least in part on the ability of root zones mycoflora to utilize pollutant(s). All rights reserved. May 2020; ... a number of biotic and abiotic factors. To investigate this, the following plant species Zea mays, Telfairaoccidentalis, Saccharum officinarum, Kalanchoe pinnata, Phaseolus vulgaris, Arachis hypogaea, Phragmitis australis, Azolla pinnata and Eichornia crasssipes were screened for growth and tolerance to 0, 1, 3 and 6% w/w crude oil, Studies were conducted using a 10-chamber Micro-Oxymax (Columbus, OH, USA) respirometer to determine the effect of bioaugmentation, biostimulation and combination of them on enhancing intrinsic biodegradation of oil hydrocarbons in soil. Thus, growth of these plants can be enhanced in crude oil contaminated soil by the above treatments for efficient rhizoremediation.